COURSE GUIDE:

Course Title: Instructional communication model: media, principles and techniques 

 Course Code:                     EDT 214 

                         Course Developer:      

Ishaq Luqman Olohundare(15/25PC071) 

Aweda Sodiq Babatunde (15/25PC044) 

                        Course Writers:

Yusuf Mistura (15/25PC134)

Alabi Alimotu Omotayo (16/25PC222)

Saadu Abdulgafar Bolaji (15/25PC116)

                     Course Editors:

Soliu Ayatullahi (15/25PC127)

Hussain Bolaji Mujahid (15/25PC066)

Salami Oluwatosin saudat (15/25PC119)

                      Programme Leader:

Abdulsalam Alimot Omolabake (15/25PC008)

Abdullahi Faad Gold (15/25PC004)

                         Course Reviewer:

Dr. Mrs. Nafisat Adedokun Shittu (department of educational Technology, University of Ilorin)



phone number: 08188063056

Table of Content

  1. Course aim
  2. Course objective
  3. Introduction
  4. Pollution
  5. Types of pollution
  6. Air pollution
  7. Water pollution
  8. Soil pollution
  9. Thermal pollution
  10. Radioactive pollution
  11. Noise pollution
  12. Summary
  13. Assessment
  14. References


       The aim of this course is to provide learners or students with adequate and valuable information on:

  • Pollution
  • Types of pollution
  • Causes and effects of pollution on our environment 
  • Prevention and control of pollution


By the end of this course, you should be able to:

  • Define pollution.
  • List the different types of pollutions.
  • Briefly explain the causes and effects of each type of pollutions.
  • Enumerate the prevention and control technique for each type of pollutions.


  Links to the videos:

  1.  the earth has a fever

     2. 13 shocking effects of pollution 

     3. Acid rain 

      The intermixing of contaminants into the natural resources leading to their degradation is known as pollution. The problem of pollution has always been a major issue all around the globe and the need for proper steps to prevent and overcome it has been increasing and has also found some voices in the recent times. The ever increasing rate of pollution has caused severe damage to the ecosystems as can be seen from the rising global warming and acid rains. Also, the pollution enhances human diseases and the death rates of various animals and plants leading to an imbalance in their population. The growing rate of industries and a higher rate of consumption of fossil fuels give rise to this undesirable pollution. Constant efforts to bring about the decrement of this pollution so as to ensure a healthy environment are the need of the hour.

        Pollution control is the process of reducing or eliminating the release of pollutants (contaminants, usually human-made) into the environment. It is regulated by various environmental agencies that establish limits for the discharge of pollutants into the air, water, and land. A wide variety of devices and systems have been developed to control air and water pollution and solid wastes.

       Here we are going to discuss the different types of pollution and how all these types differ from one another, there adverse effects on humans, animals, plants and the ecosystem. We will study all these factors in detail and will also study about how we can prevent the pollution of the natural resources. We will try and understand how the pollution is caused and this in turn will help us in understanding how this pollution can be prevented and controlled.


     Pollution can be define as the discharge of a toxic or contaminating substance that is likely to have an adverse effect on the natural environment or life. It is also defined as the direct or indirect introduction, as a result of human activity, of substances or heat into the water or land which may be harmful to human health or the quality of aquatic ecosystems or terrestrial ecosystems directly depending on aquatic ecosystems, which result in damage to material property, or which impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment.

      Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. Pollution can occur naturally, for example through volcanic eruptions, or as the result of human activities, such as the spilling of oil or disposal of industrial waste.

                TYPES OF POLLUTION


       Air pollution is the contamination of natural air by mixing up of it with many different contaminating particles including chemicals, harmful fumes etc. Air pollution is the introduction of harmful substances including particulates and biological molecules into Earth’s atmosphere. This type of pollution poses a potential risk, leading to respiratory infections, heart diseases, strokes etc. Other health effects due to air pollution include asthma and cardiac conditions. It may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment. Human activity and natural processes can both generate air pollution.


       Methods of air pollution maintenance and control can be divided into two categories: the control of particulate emissions and the control of gaseous emissions. The term particulate refers to tiny particles of matter such as smoke, soot, and dust that are released during industrial, agricultural, or other activities. Gaseous emissions are industrial products such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen also released during various manufacturing operations.

Particulate control:

Methods for particulate control tend to operate on a common principle. The solid particles are separated from the gases in which they are contained by physical procedures such as passage through a settling chamber. A settling chamber is a long, wide pipe through which gases from a manufacturing process are allowed to flow. As these gases slowdown in the pipe, the solid particles settle out. They can then be removed from the bottom of the pipe.

A cyclone collector is another device for removing particulates from stack gases. The gases are fed into a rotating cylindrical container.

Centrifugal forces (the forces that move things away from the center of rotation) send solid particles in the gas outward against the walls of the container. They collect there briefly, then fall to the bottom of the container. Gases from which the particles have been removed then escape from the top of the container.

Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants:

1. Combustion – This technique is used when the pollutants are in the form of organic gases or vapors. During flame combustion or catalytic process, these organic pollutants are converted into water vapor and relatively less harmful products, such as CO2.

2. Absorption – In this technique, the gaseous effluents are passed through scrubbers or absorbers. These contain a suitable liquid absorbent, which removes or modifies one or more of the pollutants present in the gaseous effluents.

3. Adsorption – The gaseous effluents are passed through porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The organic and inorganic constituents of the effluent gases are trapped at the interface of the solid adsorbent by physical adsorbent.



        Water pollution is defined as the constant addition of pollutants to the water bodies resulting in contamination of the water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the natural biological communities.
       The contaminated water when mixed with a bigger water body results in the adverse impact on the aquatic species. The major role played in the contamination of water is by the various industrial chemicals and wastes that are thrown into the water body without adequate treatment and thus contaminating the water. The high temperature fluids adversely affect the thermal state of the water and lead to the discoloration of natural clean water. The list of the contaminants of water also includes many other particles such as detergents being generated by the industries and also from the households which get readily mixed with the water bodies.


      People can take certain preventable measures to stop water pollution like being more caution of dumping contaminants onto water bodies. For the repair of damage that has already been done, water treatment plants are being constructed with innovative techniques to clean the polluted water.

  1. Sewage treatment

Domestic sewage is typically treated by centralized sewage treatment plants. Well-designed and operated systems (i.e., secondary treatment or better) can remove 90 percent or more of the pollutant load in sewage. Some plants have additional systems to remove nutrients and pathogens

    2. Industrial wastewater treatment

Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities. Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pollutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or other non-conventional pollutants such as ammonia, need specialized treatment systems. Some of these facilities can install a pre-treatment system to remove the toxic components, and then send the partially treated waste water to the municipal system.

           3. SOIL POLLUTION

        Soil pollution is defined as, “contamination of soil by human and natural activities which may cause harmful effect on living organisms. Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste. Basically, the soil pollution refers to the mixing up of soil with the materials which are potent enough to affect the natural soil when mixed up with it in more than adequate proportions. The addition of the contaminated particles to soil happens both due to the human and natural activities

TYPES, EFFECTS AND SOURCES OF SOIL POLLUTION Soil pollution mainly occurs due to the following:

  • Industrial wastes
  • Urban wastes
  • Agricultural practices
  • Radioactive pollutants
  • Biological agents

1. Industrial wastes – Disposal of Industrial wastes is the major problem for soil pollution.

Sources: Industrial pollutants are mainly discharged from various origins such as pulp and paper mills, chemical fertilizers, oil refineries, sugar factories, tanneries, textiles, steel, distilleries, fertilizers, pesticides, coal and mineral mining industries, drugs, glass, cement, petroleum and engineering industries etc.  

Effect: These pollutants affect and alter the chemical and biological properties of soil. As a result, hazardous chemicals can enter into human food chain from the soil or water, disturb the biochemical process and finally lead to serious effects on living organisms.

2. Urban wastes– comprise of both commercial and domestic wastes consisting of dried sludge and sewage. All the urban solid wastes are commonly referred to as refuse. 

Constituents of urban refuse: This refuse consists of garbage and rubbish materials like plastics, glasses, metallic cans, fibers, paper, rubbers, street sweepings, fuel residues, leaves, containers, abandoned vehicles and other discarded manufactured products. Urban domestic wastes though disposed off separately from industrial wastes, can still be dangerous. This happens because they are not easily degraded.  

3. Agricultural practices – Modern agricultural practices pollute the soil to a large extent. With the advancing agro-technology, huge quantities of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and weedicides are added to increase the crop yield. Apart from these farm wastes, manure, slurry, debris, soil erosion containing mostly inorganic chemicals are reported to cause soil pollution

Maintenance and Control measures of soil pollution:

1. Soil erosion can be controlled by a variety of forestry and farm practices.

Planting trees on barren slopes, Contour cultivation and strip cropping may be practiced instead of shifting cultivation, Terracing and building diversion channels may be undertaken, Reducing deforestation and substituting chemical manures by animal wastes also helps arrest soil erosion in the long term.


2. Proper dumping of unwanted materials: Excess wastes by man and animals pose a disposal problem. Open dumping is the most commonly practiced technique. Nowadays, controlled tipping is followed for solid waste disposal. The surface so obtained is used for housing or sports field.

3. Production of natural fertilizers: Bio-pesticides should be used in place of toxic chemical pesticides. Organic fertilizers should be used in place of synthesized chemical fertilizers. Ex: Organic wastes in animal dung may be used to prepare compost manure instead of throwing them wastefully and polluting the soil.

4.Proper hygienic condition: People should be trained regarding sanitary habits.

Ex: Lavatories should be equipped with quick and effective disposal methods.

5. Public awareness: Informal and formal public awareness programs should be imparted to educate people on health hazards by environmental education.

Ex: Mass media, Educational institutions and voluntary agencies can achieve this.

6. Recycling and Reuse of wastes: To minimize soil pollution, the wastes such as paper, plastics, metals, glasses, organics, petroleum products and industrial effluents etc should be recycled and reused.

Ex: Industrial wastes should be properly treated at source. Integrated waste treatment methods should be adopted.

7. Ban on Toxic chemicals: Ban should be imposed on chemicals and pesticides like DDT, BHC, etc which are fatal to plants and animals. Nuclear explosions and improper disposal of radioactive wastes should be banned.

      Thermal Pollution is the harmful increase in water temperature in streams, rivers, lakes, or occasionally, coastal ocean waters. It is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. A temperature increase as small as 1 or 2 Celsius degrees (about 2 to 4 Fahrenheit degrees) can kill native fish, shellfish, and plants, or drive them out in favor of other species, often with undesirable effects. The major sources of thermal pollution are electric power plants and industrial factories.  Another cause is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the change in temperature decreases oxygen supply, and affects ecosystem composition.

Causes or Sources of Thermal Pollution:

The various causes of thermal pollution are as follows:

(1) Coal-fired Power Plants: Some thermal power plants use coal as fuel. Coal-fired power plants constitute the major source of the thermal pollution.

(2) Industrial Effluents:
Industries generating electricity require large amount of cooling water for heat removal. Other industries like textile, paper, and pulp and sugar industry also release heat in water, but to a lesser extent.

(3) Nuclear Power Plants: Nuclear power plants emit a large amount of unutilized heat and traces of toxic radio nuclear into nearby water streams. Emissions from nuclear reactors and processing installations are also responsible for increasing the temperature of water bodies.

(4) Hydro Electric Power: Generation of hydro-electric power also results in negative thermal loading of water bodies.

(5) Domestic Sewage:
Domestic sewage is often discharged into rivers, lakes, canals or streams without waste treatment. The municipal water sewage normally has a higher temperature than receiving water. With the increase in temperature of the receiving water the dissolved oxygen content (DO) decreases and the demand of oxygen increases and anaerobic conditions occur.


Control of thermal pollution is necessary as its detrimental effects on aquatic ecosystem may be detrimental in the future. Viable solutions to chronic thermal discharge into water bodies are as follows:

(1) Cooling Ponds

Cooling ponds or reservoirs constitute the simplest method of controlling thermal discharges. Heated effluents on the surface of water in cooling ponds maximize dissipation of heat to the atmosphere and minimize the water area and volume. This is the simplest and cheapest method which cools the water to a considerable low temperature. However, the technique alone is less desirable and inefficient in terms of air-water contact.

(2) Cooling Towers:

Using water from water sources for cooling purposes, with subsequent return to the water body after passing through the condenser is termed as cooling process. In order to make the cooling process more effective, cooling towers are designed to control the temperature of water. In-fact, cooling towers are used to dissipate the recovered waste heat so as to eliminate the problems of thermal pollution.

(3) Artificial Lake:

Artificial lakes are man-made bodies of water which offer possible alternative to once through cooling. The heated effluents may be discharged into the lake at one end and the water for cooling purposes may be withdrawn from the other end. The heat is eventually dissipated through evaporation.


        Radioactive pollution, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable. Such contamination presents a hazard because of the radioactive decay of the contaminants, which emit harmful ionizing radiation such as alpha particles or beta particles, gamma rays or neutrons.

        Radioactive pollution primarily impacts health, contributing to the rise of illnesses such as lung cancer, skin cancer and thyroid cancer, along with birth defects and cognitive disabilities. The type and severity of effects from radioactive pollution vary, depending on the quantity of pollution and amount of exposure. Long-term exposure might cause an increase in the number of genetic birth defects and mutations in a population, while acute exposure poses health risks, such as higher incidences of cancer within a population.


The radioactive pollution can be controlled by number of ways. It includes

  1. The stoppage of leakage from the radioactive materials including the nuclear reactors, industries and laboratories.
  2. The disposal of radioactive material must be safe and secure. They must be stored in the safe places and must be changed into harmless form.
  3. The wastes with a very low radiation must be put into the sewage.
  4. The nuclear power plants must follow all the safe instructions.
  5. The protective garments must be worn by the workers who work in the nuclear plants.
  6. The natural radiation must be at the permissible limits and they must not cross it.

           6. NOISE POLLUTION

        Noise pollution takes place when there is either excessive amount of noise or an unpleasant sound that causes temporary disruption in the natural balance. This is usually applicable to sounds or noises that are unnatural in either their volume or their production. Noise pollution can be experienced by too many vehicles honking at the roads, heavy machinery being operated in the open, trains, aircrafts, clubs, overpopulated crowds and many more.

       Noise pollution has many adverse effects on humans, including stress-related illnesses, hearing loss, sleep disruption, speech interference and loss of productivity. Perhaps the most acute problem associated with noise pollution is the hearing loss it can cause after long-term exposure. Affecting the eardrums, noise pollution can cause permanent damage when present for a prolonged period of time.


  1. Reducing noise pollution by muffling the sounds at the source is one of the best methods in industry and for urban living.
  2. Protective equipment is generally mandatory when working or leaving close to a machine that produces too much noise.
  3. Creation of green cover adjacent to municipal roads and in mines is the way to mitigate noise pollution
  4. Noise pollution can also be maintained by redesigning industrial equipment and machines, so that they produce less noise.
  5. High way noise pollution can be mitigated by constructing noise barriers. Artificial noise barriers are solid obstructions built between the highway and the residential areas along a highway.


        Pollution is major issue all around the globe, its effects, problems and the need for proper steps to control, prevent and overcome it has been discussed in this course.

         Pollution has be define as the discharge of a toxic or contaminating substance that is likely to have an adverse effect on the natural environment or life. The types of pollution are Air, Water, Soil, Radioactive, Thermal and Noise pollution. Pollution can occur naturally, for example through volcanic eruptions, or as the result of human activities, such as the spilling of oil or disposal of industrial waste.  Pollution can occur naturally, for example through volcanic eruptions, or as the result of human activities,   such as the spilling of oil or disposal of industrial waste. The ever increasing rate of pollution has caused severe damage to the ecosystems as can be seen from the rising global warming. Also, the pollution enhances human diseases and the death rates of various animals and plants leading to an imbalance in their population. It also results to damage to property and interference with the legitimate use of the environment.

        Pollution control is the process of reducing or eliminating the release of pollutants (contaminants, usually human-made) into the environment. It is regulated by various environmental agencies that establish limits for the discharge of pollutants into the air, water, and land. A wide variety of devices and systems have been developed to control air and water pollution and solid wastes.


  • What is pollution?
  • List and explain five types of pollution
  • Explain the prevention and control of each types of pollution.
  • Briefly explain causes and effects of pollution on our environment




Posted by: PARTHA DAS SHARMA | September 1, 2009:https://saferenvironment.wordpress.com/2009/09/01/environmental-pollution-problems-and-control-measures-%E2%80%93-overview/






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